Module Two – The Unconscious and the Collective Unconscious

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Presented by Fred Borchardt and Austin Smith

Foundational Concepts in Jungian Psychology Module 2


The idea of the psyche being divided into different layers is central to depth psychology and psychoanalysis. In this module we will explore the differences between the conscious and unconscious parts of the psyche. We will start off by looking at the unconscious aspects which are unique to every individual, our personal complexes. We will follow this up by looking at how we reveal and conceal these complexes from others (and ourselves) through the structures of  persona and shadow. Next, we will consider the bridge to the even deeper layers of our unconscious, the anima and animus. Finally, we will explore the idea of a collective unconscious, arguably Jung’s greatest contribution to the field of Psychology. 


Fred Borchardt and Austin Smith


  • March 4 –  Psychological Complexes
  • March 11 – Persona and Shadow
  • March 18 – Anima and Animus.
  • April 8 – The collective unconscious
  • April 15  – Film: Pan’s Labyrinth


March 4– Psychological Complexes by Austin Smith. 

An introduction to complexes, their origins, presentation and relevance to understanding ourselves in the world. 

March 11 – Persona and Shadow: Austin Smith.

Exploring the ideas of how we learn to present ourselves in the world, how this is defined and influenced by our culture and society and what happens to those parts that are deemed unacceptable for public expression. 

March 18  Anima and Animus: Fred Borchardt.

Examining the interplay and differences between the Animus (spirit) and Anima (soul). These constructs are used to illustrate our relationship and link  to the unconscious part of our psyches.

April 8 – The collective unconscious: Fred Borchardt.

Human beings across the world share certain universal structures, which are described as archetypes. These are the building blocks of the unconscious and therefore the psyche.

April 15

Film: Pan’s Labyrinth, the 2006 movie by Guillermo del Toro. This is a modern fairytale, with striking symbols. In the discussion we will look at how this film illustrates the existence and function of the unconscious.


  • Stein, M (1998). Jung’s Map of the Soul. Open Court Books.
    1. March 4: Psychological complexes. Chapter 2 of Stein
    2. March 11: Persona and Shadow. Chapter 5 of Stein
    3. March 18: Anima and Animus. Chapter 6 from Stein
    4. April 8: Collective Unconscious. Chapter 4 of Stein 


Austin Smith is a Clinical Psychologist and Jungian Analyst.  He has worked in various private and public sectors in South Africa and the United Kingdom and currently has a private practice in Rondebosch, Cape Town.

Fred Borchardt is a Counselling Psychologist and Jungian Analyst. He started his psychology career in the Department of Correctional services and has been working in private practice in Cape Town since 1997. He has rooms in Rosebank, Plumstead and Stellenbosch.